- R.W. Floyd & R. Beigel (1994):
*The Language of Machines*, Computer Science Press (Freeman). 706 pages. $60

The main novelty of this book in comparison with other texts, is that it presents a lot of concepts that are generally treated on an ad hoc basis, as instances of a more abstract theory. (I.e. there is a general concept of a machine that specializes to the classical finite automata, pushdown automata, Turing machines, etc. There is also a general notion of simulation that replaces various ad hoc strategies for proving machines equivalent.) This makes it easier to see the connections between various parts of the course, and also simplifies some proofs. On the other hand, it can be argued that some energy devoted towards analyzing abstract concepts could have been saved when dealing with the concrete instantiations separately.

If, for a change of viewpoint, you like to see a more standard approach to the subject matter of this course, consult one of:

- J.E. Hopcroft & J.D. Ullman (1978):
*Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages & Computation*, Addison & Wesley. 418 pages. $47 - H.R. Lewis & C.R. Papadimitriou (1981):
*Elements of the Theory of Computation*, Prentice Hall. 466 pages. $76 - D. Kelley (1995):
*Automata & Formal Languages - An Introduction*, Prentice Hall. 240 pages. $52

Rob van Glabbeek